The Trust Economics is a specialized independent economic research, analysis & consultant business and to conduct properly and in excellent level its research service follows the guidelines of the new European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity (Fact Sheet on the new European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity https://ec.europa.eu/research/openscience/pdf/factsheet_integrity code 2017 .pdf , 08/12/2020). ALLEA – European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity – 2017
(https://www.allea.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/ALLEA-European-Code-of-Conduct-for-Research-Integrity-2017.pdf , 08/12/2020)
What is Research?
Research is the search for knowledge obtained through systematic study and thinking, observation and experimentation. While different disciplines may use different approaches, they each share the motivation to increase our understanding of ourselves and the world in which we live. Therefore, “ALLEA – European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity-2017” applies to research in all scientific and scholarly fields.
Research is a common enterprise, carried out in academic, industry and other settings. It involves collaboration, direct or indirect, which often transcends social, political, and cultural boundaries. It is underpinned by freedom to define research questions and develop theories, gather empirical evidence, and employ appropriate methods. Therefore, research draws on the work of the community of researchers and ideally develops independently of pressure from commissioning parties and from ideological, economic, or political interests.
What is Research Integrity?
Good research practices are based on fundamental principles of research integrity. They guide researchers in their work as well as in their engagement with the practical, ethical, and intellectual challenges inherent in research. The Code of Conduct defines these principles as reliability, honesty, respect, and accountability. The Code provides more expansive definitions of these principles.
Why is Research Integrity important?
Integrity is essential to ensure excellence in research and high-quality research outputs that enable innovation and policy making. Excellent research has a major impact on society for example in areas such as public health or environmental protection, to name just two. Furthermore, ensuring research integrity is crucial to ensuring and promoting public trust in science.
Who is concerned the new ALLEA-European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity?
The new code was drafted in a manner so that it is relevant to and can be used by all researchers from both the public and the private sector. The new Code replaces an existing one and is referred to in Article 34 of the Model Grant Agreement of Horizon 2020, which stipulates that “beneficiaries must respect the highest standards of research integrity — as set out, for instance, in the European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity.”
Horizon 2020 will facilitate the effective take-up and implementation of the Code via several Horizon 2020 funded research projects aiming notably at creating an EU research integrity community. Ongoing and planned activities aim at estimating the cost of misconduct, mapping the normative EU landscape, developing training/education material (train the trainers, training modules for researchers etc.) and promoting integrity in the use of research results in evidence-based policy.
Good research practices are based on fundamental principles of research integrity. They guide researchers in their work as well as in their engagement with the practical, ethical, and intellectual challenges inherent in research.
These principles are:
- Reliability in ensuring the quality of research, reflected in the design, the methodology, the analysis, and the use of resources.
- Honesty in developing, undertaking, reviewing, reporting, and communicating research in a transparent, fair, full, and unbiased way.
- Respect for colleagues, research participants, society, ecosystems, cultural heritage, and the environment.
- Accountability for the research from idea to publication, for its management and organisation, for training, supervision, and mentoring, and for its wider impacts.
- Researchers consider the state-of-the-art in developing research ideas.
- Researchers design, carry out, analyse and document research in a careful and well considered manner.
- Researchers make proper and conscientious use of research funds.
- Researchers publish results and interpretations of research in an open, honest, transparent, and accurate manner, and respect confidentiality of data or findings when legitimately required to do so.
- Researchers report their results in a way that is compatible with the standards of the discipline and, where applicable, can be verified and reproduced.
- Researchers comply with codes and regulations relevant to their discipline.
- Researchers handle research subjects, with respect and care, and in accordance with legal and ethical provisions.
- Researchers have due regard for the health, safety, and welfare of the community, of collaborators and others connected with their research.
- Research protocols take account of, and are sensitive to, relevant differences in age, gender, culture, religion, ethnic origin, and social class.
- Researchers recognise and manage potential harms and risks relating to their research.
Data Practices and Management
- Researchers and private research business ensure appropriate stewardship and curation of all data and research materials, including unpublished ones, with secure preservation for a reasonable period.
- Researchers and private research business ensure access to data is as open as possible, as closed as necessary, and where appropriate in line with the FAIR Principles (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Re-usable) for data management.
- Researchers and private research business provide transparency about how to access or make use of their data and research materials.
- Researchers and private research business acknowledge data as legitimate and citable products of research.
- Researchers and private research business ensure that any contracts or agreements relating to research outputs include equitable and fair provision for the management of their use, ownership, and/or their protection under intellectual property rights.